Thursday, December 14, 2017

Friday Thinking 16 Dec. 2017

Hello all – Friday Thinking is a humble curation of my foraging in the digital environment. My purpose is to pick interesting pieces, based on my own curiosity (and the curiosity of the many interesting people I follow), about developments in some key domains (work, organization, social-economy, intelligence, domestication of DNA, energy, etc.)  that suggest we are in the midst of a change in the conditions of change - a phase-transition. That tomorrow will be radically unlike yesterday.

Many thanks to those who enjoy this.
In the 21st Century curiosity will SKILL the cat.
Jobs are dying - work is just beginning.

“Be careful what you ‘insta-google-tweet-face’”
Woody Harrelson - Triple 9



What role does quantum mechanics play in the machinery of life? Nobody is quite sure, but in recent years, physicists have begun to investigate all kinds of possibilities. In the process, they have gathered evidence suggesting that quantum mechanics plays an important role in photosynthesis, in bird navigation, and perhaps in our sense of smell.

There is even a speculative line of thought that quantum processes must have governed the origin of life itself and the formulation of the genetic code. The work to study these questions is ongoing and involves careful observation of the molecules of life.

Quantum Simulation Could Shed Light on the Origins of Life

You may already have heard of Carl Sagan’s “Cosmic Calendar,” compressing the Universe’s chronology from 13.8 billion down to a single year. On this timeline, life doesn’t appear until September 21st, multicellular organisms December 5th, and anatomically modern humans before December 31st, 11:52PM. Agriculture, which many historians consider the beginning of human civilization, doesn’t start until 11:59PM, and 32 seconds.

This industrial revolution, on the “cosmic calendar”, doesn’t start until 570 milliseconds before midnight.

So, sure, if you look at it on the timescale of a single human, things are moving kind of slowly. But, remember: it’s a miracle we’re seeing anything move at all!For most of human history, one could have time-traveled 100 years into the future and been able to function normally, barely noticing any difference (except for the way those punks are now tying their hair with 2 bones instead of 3).

To wrap this point up: on the grand timescale of the Universe, nothing happened for a very long time, and then all of a sudden, life developed. From this point already, staying on the scale of the Universe makes it hard to tell events apart, so we need to zoom into this thin sliver. There, we can see, again, not much happen, and then all of a sudden, mammals develop, including apes. Zooming further, not much happening, and then human civilization! Zooming in, not much, and then industrial revolution!

You get the idea: not only do I think the singularity can happen, I think we’re already living in it.

Heroes on the Shoulders of Giants

…. the US manufacturing sector is doing great. Average hourly earnings have risen 25 percent in the past decade. Manufacturing’s contribution to GDP grew from $1.8 trillion in 2008 to $2.2 trillion last year. Productivity, measured as output by hour, is up 10 percent in the past decade. Workers are making more things than they were a decade ago, and they’re making more money doing it. But there are fewer workers. Two decades ago, close to 18 million people worked in US manufacturing. Now, despite the fact that the sector has created almost 1 million jobs since 2010, employment in manufacturing is closer to 12 million.

Plenty of jobs still exist in the US economy, but plenty have been lost. And the jobs that have vanished were good jobs, middle-class ones—the kind that helped families buy houses, cars, and college educations for their children. Many of the jobs were available to immigrants and workers
without college degrees, and allowed them to work toward the American dream.

These job losses, which extend beyond manufacturing, represent a seismic economic shift, and how to replace them is a conundrum with which economists and policy makers are struggling. “We’re so accustomed to not dealing with this question, frankly, as is the government, that we’ve come to a point where people are upset about the quality of the jobs,” says Anthony P. Carnevale, director of the Georgetown University Center on Education and the Workforce.

How To Create Middle-Class Jobs

danah boyd: I think that it's still absolutely focused on the idea that technology will solve our way out of this. I think that we're still not taking a true public accounting of all of the different cultural factors that are at play. What's really striking about what's at stake is that we have an understanding of our American society and of there being a rational, bureaucratic process around democracy. But now there are such notable societal divisions, and rather than trying to bridge them, trying to remedy them, trying to figure out why people's emotions are speaking past one another, it's about looking for a blame, looking for somebody that we can hold responsible without holding ourselves individually and collectively responsible. Unfortunately, that's going to do squat. And, for the most
part, we’re looking for something new to blame, which is why so much of the attention is focused on technology companies instead of politics, news media, or our economic incentives. We need to hold ourselves individually and collectively responsible, but that’s not where people are at.

We're not seeing something that is brand new. We're just distraught because hatred, prejudice, and polarization are now extraordinarily visible, and that the people who have power in this moment are not the actors that some of us believe should have power. And, of course, technology mirrors and magnifies the good, bad, and ugly of everyday life. There’s a peculiar contradiction and challenge of what we’ve built [with these platforms]. So many early internet creators hoped to build a decentralized system that would allow anybody to have power. We didn't account for the fact that the class of people who might leverage this strategically may do so for nefarious, adversarial, or destructive purposes.

The Fake News Culprit No One Wants to Identify: You

Both utopia and dystopia are often an enclave of maximum control surrounded by a wilderness — as in Butler’s Erewhon, E. M. Forster’s “The Machine Stops,” and Yevgeny Zamyatin’s We.

Good citizens of utopia consider the wilderness dangerous, hostile, unlivable; to an adventurous or rebellious dystopian it represents change and freedom. In this I see examples of the intermutability of the yang and yin: the dark mysterious wilderness surrounding a bright, safe place, the Bad Places — which then become the Good Place, the bright, open future surrounding a dark, closed prison . . . Or vice versa.

My guess is that the kind of thinking we are, at last, beginning to do about how to change the goals of human domination and unlimited growth to those of human adaptability and long-term survival is a shift from yang to yin, and so involves acceptance of impermanence and imperfection, apatience with uncertainty and the makeshift, a friendship with water, darkness, and the earth.

Ursula K. Le Guin Explains How to Build a New Kind of Utopia

This is a signal that we keep forgetting to remember. The graphs are worth the view.

Why The World Is Getting Better And Why Hardly Anyone Knows It

Read the news and you can see that the world is going to hell in hand-basket—and fast! Terrorism, nuclear weapons, economic stagnation, social unrest, autocratic leaders, structural unemployment, deskilling, growing hopelessness, the opioid epidemic, increasing inequality, xenophobia, economic migrations, recessions, financial bubbles and crashes, recessions, depressions—the list goes on.

So, when a recent survey asked “All things considered, do you think the world is getting better or worse?” the results were predictably bleak. In Sweden only 10% thought things are getting better, and in the U,S., it was only 6%. Hardly anyone thinks the world is getting better.

And yet the facts show otherwise. In a powerful study entitled “The short history of global living conditions and why it matters that we know it” by Max Roser, an economist at the University of Oxford and the founder of Our World in Data, we learn that on virtually all of the key dimensions of human material well-being—poverty, literacy, health, freedom, and education—the world is an extraordinarily better place than it was just a couple of centuries ago.

This is a long report on the state of AI. For all those interested in this
multidimensional rapidly evolving phenomena - holding the sum of all fears and hopes.


Created and launched as a project of the One Hundred Year Study on AI at Stanford University (AI100), the AI Index is an open, not-for-profit project to track activity and progress in AI. It aims to facilitate an informed conversation about AI that is grounded in data. This is the inaugural annual report of the AI Index, and in this report we look at activity and progress in Artificial Intelligence through a range of perspectives. We aggregate data that exists freely on the web, contribute original data, and extract new metrics from combinations of data series.

All of the data used to generate this report will be openly available on the AI Index website at Providing data, however, is just the beginning. To become truly useful, the AI Index needs support from a larger community. Ultimately, this report is a call for participation. You have the ability to provide data, analyze collected data, and make a wish
list of what data you think needs to be tracked. Whether you have answers or questions to provide, we hope this report inspires you to reach out to the AI Index and become part of the effort to ground the conversation about AI.

The first half of the report showcases data aggregated by the AI Index team. This is followed by a discussion of key areas the report does not address, expert commentary on the trends displayed in the report, and a call to action to support our data collection eforts and join the conversation about measuring and communicating progress in AI technology. Data Sections The data in the report is broken into four primary parts:
• Volume of Activity
• Technical Performance
• Derivative Measures
• Towards Human-Level Performance?

The Volume of Activity metrics capture the “how much” aspects of the field, like attendance at AI conferences and VC investments into startups developing AI systems. The Technical Performance metrics capture the “how good” aspects; for example, how well computers can understand images and prove mathematical theorems. The methodology used to collect each data set is detailed in the appendix.

These first two sets of data confirm what is already well recognized: all graphs are “up and to the right,” reflecting the increased activity in AI efforts as well as the progress of the technology. In the Derivative Measures section we investigate the relationship between trends. We also introduce an exploratory measure, the AI Vibrancy Index, that combines trends across academia and industry to quantify the liveliness of AI as a field.

This is a great signal of the looming transformation of the finance and business logistics domains.

BBVA Launching Blockchain Shipping Solution

Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria (BBVA) has partnered with Blockchain company Waves to create a distributed ledger technology (DLT) platform for processing and handling shipping document submissions. The system, already being tested, was able to reduce the processing and handling times from 7-10 days, to just 2.5 hours.

The first test was performed on a shipment of tuna from Mexico to Barcelona, Spain. Generally, such a purchase is completed using a letter of credit, which can often still involve manual checking of documents which would require at least a couple of weeks for full verification.

However, with the immutable nature of Blockchain technology, the company was able to verify and fully process the letter of credit digitally, with the power of Blockchain. According to Daniel Berenguer, Head of Digital Trade Finance in Client Solutions:

“The operation was registered and securely validated at the same time for all parties, thanks to the distributed ledgers and the immutability of Blockchain.”This system will undoubtedly be adapted into other logistics arenas where validation at a fast pace is critical for business logistics.

The exponential increase in the installation of renewable energy production is amazing - and significantly it’s happening faster in developing economies - this is a very strong signal of a looming change in energy geopolitics.

Analysis: How developing nations are driving record growth in solar power

Emerging markets now account for the majority of growth in solar power, according to new data from Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF).
Led by China and India, these developing economies are behind dramatic recent growth in solar capacity, which expanded by 33% in 2016.

China alone installed 27 gigawatts (GW), around 40% of the world’s new solar last year. Brazil, Chile, Jordan, Mexico and Pakistan all at least doubled their solar capacity in 2016. In total, solar accounted for 19% of all new generating capacity in the emerging markets tracked by BNEF.

However, solar still only accounts for 5% of capacity and 1.3% of electricity generation globally. But its exponential growth in recent years has been driven by national policies and a combination of photovoltaic module prices falling more than threefold.

The emergence of ‘the internet of logistics’ holds a vast promise to improve the efficiencies of trade (including reducing reliance on fossil fuels).

A sign of the huge trade imbalance for global commodities: 45% of ships travel empty

Imagine a ship carrying commodities from Australia to China, and another carrying the same, but in the opposite direction. Both routes are equal in distance. Yet that first journey, from Australia to China, costs 33% more, on average, than the return trip.

This isn’t because of tariffs, subsidies, or some other government policy. It’s simple supply and demand—not of goods, but of ships needed to transport those goods, according to this National Bureau of Economic Research working paper. Ship supply depends on ever-shifting trade flows, which are themselves shaped by natural resources and geography.
Trade policy, however, is based on economic models that fail to account for how this complex interplay influences shipping costs and, therefore, growth.

Why is it more expensive to ship to China along the same route than the reverse? Because China feverishly imports commodities and exports relatively little of its own. Thus many more vessels unload on its docks than are needed to ship Chinese cargo elsewhere. The goods China does export (more than it imports) are manufactured items, which are shipped in container vessels, not the dry bulk ships used by commodities.

This is an important signal - not just for recycling rare materials for the emerging mega battery industry - but a weak signal for landfill mining - mining the numerous landfills where cities have been dumping waste.

Metal recyclers prepare for electric car revolution

Recycling companies are honing processes to extract metals from old batteries more cheaply and efficiently so they can capitalize on an expected shortfall in materials such as cobalt and lithium when sales of electric cars take off.
The main obstacle recyclers face now is a shortage of spent batteries to recycle to make their technology cost-effective, but those at the forefront of the industry are confident the supply, and profits, will come.

“The value of lithium carbonate and natural or synthetic graphite has doubled or tripled in the last three or four years, becoming the most valuable materials besides cobalt in the automotive battery,” Albrecht Melber, co-managing director of German recycling firm Accurec, said.

“There are big values that can be recycled in the future.”

Robots arriving to the vineyards - reducing chemicals and optimizing soil and harvest conditions.

Bordeaux: Robot vineyard worker impresses at Clerc Milon

Robots may soon have a bigger role in some of the world's most prestigious vineyards, after successful trials in Bordeaux and Portugal this year, including at Château Clerc Milon, owned by Baron Philippe de Rothschild.
Château Clerc Milon, under the same ownership as Château Mouton Rothschild in Pauillac, has tested a prototype vineyard robot named ‘Ted’ to help with soil cultivation and weeding in its vines.

The news comes amid growing reports about rising levels of automation in many business sectors.
Clerc Milon’s trial with ‘Ted’ took place earlier this year via a partnership with French group Naïo Technologies.

Baron Philippe de Rothschild’s MD, Philippe Dhalluin, said, ‘We see robotics as an effective solution for the future.

‘As well as helping to make our vineyard work less arduous and respecting the soil, it will reduce our dependency on fossil energies and the harm caused by traditional agricultural machinery.’

Here is an important strong signal of an accelerating transformation of transportation - and likely a new paradigm of mass transit.

At least 47 cities around the world are piloting self-driving cars

The idea of autonomous vehicles, or cars that drive themselves, has become so popular that almost four dozen cities around the world are experimenting with them.

Bloomberg Philanthropies and the Aspen Institute have compiled a list of all the cities testing or developing AVs by interviewing and surveying public officials as well as media reports and public documents. The list includes 47 cities that are hosting pilot programs or have committed to doing so. An additional 22 cities have begun considering the regulatory,
planning, and governance implications of AVs but have not yet agreed to trial them. The list will be updated continuously as Bloomberg and Aspen learn about new initiatives.

The other phase transition looming on the horizon of transportation is electric cars - this is a signal that may speed up the change. The graphs are worth the view.

America Crowns a New Pollution King

Power plants have been the biggest source of U.S. CO2 emissions since the 1970s—until now.
For the first time in 40 years, power plants are no longer the biggest source of U.S. greenhouse gas pollution. That dubious distinction now belongs to the transport sector: cars, trucks, planes, trains and boats.  

The big reversal didn’t happen because transportation emissions have been increasing. In fact, since 2000 the U.S. has experienced the flattest stretch of transportation-related pollution in modern record keeping, according to data compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. The big change has come from the cleanup of America’s electric grid.

The chart below shows carbon dioxide emissions from transportation exceeding those from electricity production in 2016 for the first time since 1978. The pollution gap has continued to widen further in 2017, according to a Bloomberg analysis.

This is another important signal in the ongoing domestication of DNA.

Gene Therapy Is Curing Hemophilia

Spark Therapeutics is turning gene-therapy experiments into real drugs.
Earlier this spring, Bill Maurits sat in a waiting room in Philadelphia ready to have a trillion viruses dripped into his body through an I.V. “I was like, ‘Yeah, let’s go. I can’t wait,’” he says.

Maurits has hemophilia B, which means his body doesn’t produce enough factor IX, a protein that clots blood. He’s at risk for bleeding and his joints are damaged from all the bruises. Since he was 10, he’s depended on injections of “ridiculously expensive” replacement protein. Lately, his left ankle has been killing him.

In April Maurits, an engineering designer, joined a study in which he was dosed with viruses packed with a correct version of the gene that codes for factor IX. Today at the European Hematology Association’s meeting in Copenhagen, the Philadelphia company that ran the gene-therapy study, Spark Therapeutics, is presenting results on four patients, him included.

In all four, factor IX activity has reached about 30 percent of average. That’s enough to prevent bleeding when you get hit by a baseball or twist your ankle. It’s also been enough to let Maurits go without factor IX replacements since April. “There’s no other explanation than ‘It worked,’” says Maurits.

Only a larger study will reveal for sure whether Spark’s treatment proves out. “This is four subjects. We are going to need more,” says Katherine High, the hematologist who is Spark’s president and founder. “If you saw that in 40 subjects, then maybe … well, it’s very exciting.”

This is another signal in our evolving understanding of our relationships with our own microbial ecology. Part of a reconceptualization of what a ‘self’ is.

How Bacteria Help Regulate Blood Pressure

Kidneys sniff out signals from gut bacteria for cues to moderate blood pressure after meals. Our understanding of how symbiotic microbes affect health is becoming much more molecular.
Some years ago, when Jennifer Pluznick was nearing the end of her training in physiology and sensory systems, she was startled to discover something in the kidneys that seemed weirdly out of place. It was a smell receptor, a protein that would have looked more at homein the nose. Given that the kidneys filter waste into urine and maintain the right salt content in the blood, it was hard to see how a smell receptor could be useful there. Yet as she delved deeper into what the smell receptor was doing, Pluznick came to a surprising conclusion: The kidney receives messages from the gut microbiome, the symbiotic bacteria that live in the intestines.

In the past few years, Pluznick, who is now an associate professor of physiology at Johns Hopkins University, and a small band of like-minded researchers have put together a picture of what the denizens of the gut are telling the kidney. They have found that these communiqués affect blood pressure, such that if the microbes are destroyed, the host suffers. The researchers have uncovered a direct, molecular-level explanation of how the microbiome conspires with the kidneys and the blood vessels to manipulate the flow of blood.

This is a most fascinating signal - the merging of quantum phenomena and biology - there is some significant literature that suggests that quantum mechanics plays an important role in many phenomena - even in consciousness.

Experiment demonstrates quantum mechanical effects from biological systems

Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes.

Kumar and his team have, for the first time, created quantum entanglement from a biological system. This finding could advance scientists' fundamental understanding of biology and potentially open doors to exploit biological tools to enable new functions by harnessing
quantum mechanics.

"Can we apply quantum tools to learn about biology?" said Kumar, professor of electrical engineering and computer science in Northwestern's McCormick School of Engineering and of physics and astronomy in the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences. "People have
asked this question for many, many years—dating back to the dawn of quantum mechanics. The reason we are interested in these new quantum states is because they allow applications that are otherwise impossible."

Partially supported by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the research was published Dec. 5 in Nature Communications.

This is a good signal on the continued decrease in cost of gene sequencing.

Using DNA, New Software Can Verify Identity In Minutes

Teams of researchers have developed software that utilizes DNA sequenced from a small device to verify identity. The method has some exciting potential for medical research and other practical applications.
In the two-step process, the researchers were able to take individual variants (unique nucleotides) from DNA sequenced with the MinION and apply a probability algorithm (called a Bayesian algorithm) to compare each unique set of variants with corresponding variants in other genetic profiles in the database. With each cross-reference, the probability of verifying a match increases, narrowing the search. Testing has shown that the system is capable of verifying a match between 60-300 cross-references and it takes only minutes.

The team likens their technique, which they call “MinION sketching” to the ability of our brains to identify recognizable images in abstract patterns. The study’s lead author Sophie Zaaijer, a postdoctoral researcher at Cornell Tech, compares the technique to someone making out a bird from a few features of something like a Picasso painting.

This technology has a number of important potential applications. One such application will make it easier for disaster victim identification (DVI) experts to identify bodies after major disasters like plane crashes or earthquakes. Speaking to Vice, Richard Bassed, an experienced DVI expert explained that the use of DNA to identify bodies is expensive and takes more time than other methods, like examining dental or medical records. The MinION and this new software may be able to reduce both cost and the amount of time it takes to achieve positive identification.

The technology can also help to mitigate wasted funds and time in important cancer research. Jon Lorsch, director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) wrote a report in 2014 showing how the misidentification and contamination of cell lines in medical research are responsible for potentially more than $9 billion in wasted medical research funding on studies that cannot be replicated.

The new method will allow labs to easily verify cell lines at a relatively cheap price, leading to faster research and better allocation of funds, which will likely amount to better and more frequent breakthroughs.  Neville Sanjana, a core faculty member at NYGC and assistant professor at NYU’s Department of Biology stated,  “At the right price, every lab will adopt this.”

This is another important signal in the progress toward domesticating DNA for all sort of uses - including mitigating pollution and furthering synthetic photosynthesis.

New 3-D printed materials harness the power of bacteria

Items made with ‘living ink’ could make medical supplies or clean contaminated water
A new type of 3-D printing ink has a special ingredient: live bacteria.
Materials made with this “living ink” could help clean up environmental pollution, harvest energy via photosynthesis or help make medical supplies, researchers report online December 1 in Science Advances.

This study “shows for the first time that 3-D printed bacteria can make useful materials,” says Anne Meyer, a biologist at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands who wasn’t involved in the work.

The newly concocted printing ink is a polymer mix called a hydrogel that is blended with bacteria and a broth of nutrients that helps bacterial cells grow and reproduce. Eventually, the bacteria use up all of this built-in sustenance, says study coauthor Manuel Schaffner, a material scientist at ETH Zurich. But the ink is porous, so dipping a 3-D printed structure in
more broth can reload it with nutrients, he says.

Schaffner and colleagues printed a grid embedded with a breed of bacteria called Pseudomonas putida, which eats the hazardous chemical phenol. When the researchers placed this lattice in phenol-contaminated water, the bacteria completely purified the water in just a few days.

The acceleration of AI continues - this is a short must read on Google’s most recent advances.
“I always wondered how it would be if a superior species landed on Earth and showed us how they played chess,” grandmaster Peter Heine Nielsen told the BBC.
“Now I know.”

In Just 4 Hours, Google’s AI Mastered All The Chess Knowledge in History

Chess isn’t an easy game, by human standards. But for an artificial intelligence powered by a formidable, almost alien mindset, the trivial diversion can be mastered in a few spare hours.

In a new paper, Google researchers detail how their latest AI evolution, AlphaZero, developed “superhuman performance” in chess, taking just four hours to learn the rules before obliterating the world champion chess program, Stockfish.

In other words, all of humanity’s chess knowledge – and beyond – was absorbed and surpassed by an AI in about as long as it takes to drive from New York City to Washington, DC.

After being programmed with only the rules of chess (no strategies), in just four hours AlphaZero had mastered the game to the extent it was able to best the highest-rated chess-playing program Stockfish.
...the team outlines how the very latest AlphaZero AI takes the self-playing reliance – called reinforcement learning – and applies it with a much more generalised streak that gives it a broader focus to problem solving.

That broader focus means AlphaZero doesn’t just play chess. It also plays Shogi (aka Japanese chess) and Go too – and, perhaps unsurprisingly, it only took two and eight hours respectively to master those games as well.

This is a great signal of what can new knowledge may become revealed as we combine humans with AI and the world of sensors and big data.

AI eavesdrops on dolphins and discovers six unknown click types

Computer program picked out the noises from underwater recordings of 52 million echolocation signals
A new computer program has an ear for dolphin chatter.
The algorithm uncovered six previously unknown types of dolphin echolocation clicks in underwater recordings from the Gulf of Mexico, researchers report online December 7 in PLOS Computational Biology. Identifying which species produce the newly discovered click varieties could help scientists better keep tabs on wild dolphin populations and movements.

Dolphin tracking is traditionally done with boats or planes, but that’s expensive, says study coauthor Kaitlin Frasier, an oceanographer at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, Calif. A cheaper alternative is to sift through seafloor recordings — which pick up the
echolocation clicks that dolphins make to navigate, find food and socialize. By comparing different click types to recordings at the surface — where researchers can see which animals are making the noise — scientists can learn what different species sound like, and use those clicks to map the animals’ movements deep underwater.

But even experts have trouble sorting recorded clicks, because the distinguishing features of these signals are so subtle. “When you have analysts manually going through a dataset, then there’s a lot of bias introduced just from the human perception,” says Simone Baumann-Pickering, a biologist at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography not involved in the work. “Person A may see things differently than person B.” So far, scientists have only determined the distinct sounds of a few species.

To sort clicks faster and more precisely, Frasier and her colleagues outsourced the job to a computer. They fed an algorithm 52 million clicks recorded over two years by near-seafloor sound sensors across the Gulf of Mexico. The algorithm grouped echolocation clicks based on similarities in speed and pitch — the same criteria human experts use to classify clicks. “We don’t tell it how many click types to find,” Frasier says. “We just kind of say, ‘What’s in here?’”

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